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Satish Lele
lelebiodzl@gmail.com


Lecture at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY at NEW YORK CITY
    Theme
  1. Need to introduce Jatropha Fuel

  2. Economics

  3. Plantation Methods, Precautions and Recommendations

  4. Estimated Returns

  5. Global Warming

Use of Jatropha Fuel around the world.

Most of the biodiesel produced today is using excess Soy, Palm or Rapeseed oil as raw material. Additional supply of these oils is limited, as these need scarce farm land.

    Jatropha Oil
  1. Reproducible, Green fuel

  2. Absorbs and Reduces carbon dioxide (Green House Gas) from air. Less particulate pollution

  3. Raw materials can be produced locally

  4. Greening of desert and fallow lands

  5. Low water requirements

  6. No load on lands used for food

    Life cycle
    CO2 from air, water from soil absorbed by
  1. Crops or Plantations

  2. Oil produced in Seeds

  3. Burning Oil in Diesel Engine

  4. CO2 and Water back to air

    Africa
  1. Abundant Unproductive Land

  2. Good rainfall in and around Central Part of Africa

  3. Local Manpower for Plantation

  4. Investment from Europe

    Services Required
  1. Advice for all stages of Jatropha Cycle

  2. Books and literature on Jatropha Cultivation and oil use, in local languages

  3. Creating awareness among people

    Properties of Jatropha Oil
  1. Specific Gravity : 0.840 - 0.920

  2. Saponification number : 189 - 195

  3. Iodine number : 90 - 102

  4. Unsaponifiable matter : <1.0 %

  5. Water content : <0.2 %

  6. Free Fatty Acids : 2 5 %

  7. Viscosity @ 100F : 37 to 39 cST

    Germplasm collection
  1. We have Germplasm collection from different parts of India (Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Chattisgarh) and abroad (Mexico, Brazil, Mali, South Africa, Zimbabwe)

  2. Till date we have collected 274 accessions, oil content varying from 25-40%

Germplasm Screening

Already planted all 274 accessions in field for evaluation.

Hybridization

It is under trial to evolve new high seed and oil yielding variety.

Tissue culture

Standardization of tissue culture protocol for fast multiplication of elite genotypes.

Farm cultivation

Plantation is done on 6,000 acres.

    Standardization of Agronomical Practices
    Planting geometry and density of Plants in One Acre
  1. Square planting : 6x6 = 1210 /Acre

  2. Hedgerow planting : 8x4 = 1361 /Acre

  3. Hedgerow planting : 10x3= 1452 /Acre

  4. Double Hedgerow : 8x4x4= 1815 /Acre

    Planting geometry and density in One Hectare
  1. Square planting : 6x6 = 2964/Ha

  2. Hedgerow planting : 8x4 = 3334/Ha

  3. Hedgerow planting : 10x3= 2860/Ha

  4. Double Hedgerow : 8x4x4= 4446/Ha

    Performance of Jatropha under different irrigation conditions and determination of irrigation Requirement
  1. Drip irrigation

  2. Survival irrigation

  3. Rain-fed

    Performance of Jatropha under different soil conditions
  1. Planting on terraced hill in light rocky (brick like) soil

  2. Planting on hills with rocky (brick like) soil

  3. Planting on marginally cultivated hills with rocky (brick like) soil

  4. Planting in sandy loam normal soils

    Effect of Pinching and pruning on branching, flowering and fruiting
  1. Pinching after one month of planting

  2. Pinching after two months of planting

  3. Pruning in April

  4. Pruning in May

    Determination of fertilizer requirement
  1. At the time of setting up nursery

  2. At the time of plantation

  3. After three months of plantation

  4. During dry season

  5. After one year of plantation

COST OF PLANTATION
Cost per acre in First Year is
----------------------------------------------
Saplings (1,000 Nos.) US$ 50
Fertilizer/Manure US$ 20
Labor for plantation US$ 20
Irrigation / Plant Protection US$ 65
Machinery / fuel US$ 55
----------------------------------------------
The cost of plantation is around US$ 210,
for plantation and maintenance for first year.
Cost per acre in Second Year is
----------------------------------------------
Saplings (200 Nos.) US$ 10
Fertilizer/Manure US$ 5
Labor for plantation US$ 10
Irrigation / Plant Protection US$ 5
Machinery / fuel US$ 15
----------------------------------------------
The cost of plantation is around US$ 45,
for plantation and maintenance for second year.
Cost per acre in Third Year is
----------------------------------------------
Fertilizer/Manure US$ 5
Labor for fruits collection US$ 11
Irrigation / Plant Protection US$ 5
Machinery / fuel US$ 25
----------------------------------------------
The cost of plantation is around US$ 46,
inclusive of maintenance for third year and subsequent years.
Income from Plantation
Income in 1st year per acre
----------------------------------------------
Yearly seed collection = 1,000 lbs.
Price of seeds expected = 5 cents/lb
Income Expected = US$ 50
----------------------------------------------
Income in 2nd year per acre
----------------------------------------------
Yearly seed collection = 2,000 lbs.
Price of seeds expected = 5 cents/lb
Income Expected = US$ 100
----------------------------------------------
Income in 3rd and subsequent years per acre
----------------------------------------------
Yearly seed collection = 3,000 lbs.
Price of seeds expected = 5 cents/lb
Income Expected = US$ 150
----------------------------------------------
Places ideal for Plantation
Investors should invest in plantation in
  1. Southern states of India like Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu.

  2. Southern and southwestern states of United States like Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, New Mexico, California, Nevada.

  3. South East Asia, sub Saharan Africa.

Internal Rate of Return
  1. Internal Rate of Return for First 3 years is negative but positive later on.

  2. Plantation income for 50 years.